The Infinite Lights - Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan
The Infinite Light

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One of the most important foundations of our faith is the belief that God is one. 23

The Torah says, "Hear O Israel, the Lord is our God, the Lord is One" (Deuteronomy 6:4).

This is the Sh'ma, our declaration of faith. Twice each day, the believing Jew cries out these words. They are among the first things a Jew learns as a child, and the last words that he utters before he dies. On every Jewish doorpost, there is a Mezuzah proclaiming these very same words. They are found again in the Tefillin, bound daily next to the heart and mind. All these proclaim this most basic principal of Judaism.

What this tells us is that all things come from One ultimate Source. All creation is bound together by God. There is One unifying Force in the universe, God alone, unique and incomparable. The Torah thus tells us, "Know it this day, and set it in your heart, that the Lord is God, in heaven above, and on the earth below, there is no other" (Deuteronomy 4:39).

As Creator of all things, God stands alone. There can be only one Creator of all things. The Psalmist thus sings, "Who besides the Lord is God? Who besides our God is Creator?" (Psalms 18:32).

There can only be one First Thing. Anything else is no longer first. God alone is the First Thing, as He told His prophet, "I am first and I am last, and beside Me there is no God . . . . There is no other God besides Me, no other Creator. This I know" (Isaiah 44:6, 8).

Man must ultimately depend on God. All of our prayers are directed toward Him. God is the One who has all power, and all our hopes and aspirations depend on Him. God thus told us through His prophet, "Before Me, there was no God, and none shall be after Me. I Myself am God, and none but I can save you" (Isaiah 43:10, 11).

For over a thousand years the Jews alone proclaimed that God was One. For the first thousand years of our existence, the rest of the world believed in a host of pagan gods, each with a different power. Even those who believed in God felt that He was too high to be concerned with man, and therefore acted only through mediators. These mediators then became their gods. 24 Others believed that there were two primary forces, one for good and the other for evil. 25 Alone of all peoples, the Jew believed that everything ultimately and directly emanated from one Source, namely, God. Our experience at the Exodus, reinforced throughout our history, also taught us that God Himself is concerned with man, and to Him alone we must pray. God spoke of this when He told us through His prophet, "I am the Lord your God since your days in Egypt. You know that there is no God but Me, and no one else can save you" (Hosea 13:4).

We see the processes of history gradually bringing the entire world to belief in one God. The pagan world gradually gave way to religions professing belief in the one God of Israel. More and more, people are becoming convinced of this truth and in the end, the entire world will believe. The Prophet thus proclaimed, "God shall be King over all the world, and on that day, God will be One, and His name One" (Zechariah 14:9).


Just as God is One, so is He unique. There is absolutely no power that can compare to Him. He is the One from whom all power emanates. This was one of the first things the Jewish people understood about God after the Exodus, and they sang by the Red Sea, "Who is like You, O God, among the mighty? Who is like You, majestic in holiness, awesome in praise, working wonders?" (Exodus 15:11).

Nothing else can possibly resemble God. He is the Creator of all things, and as such, is unique. Hannah thus said in her prayer, "There is none holy like God, for there is none besides Him. There is no Creator like our God" (1 Samuel 2:2). God Himself told His prophet, "To whom will you liken Me, or make Me equal, or compare Me that we may be alike? . . . I am God, and there is none else. I am God, and there is none like Me" (Isaiah 46:5,9).

As Creator, God stands unique. Other beings may be great and powerful, but they can never be the one Creator of all. No matter what, this difference must exist. 26 God may have created many lofty beings, but none can even come close to resembling Him. The Psalmist thus sang (Psalms 89:7):

Who in the skies can compare to God?
    Who is like Him of the sons of might?
A God too dreadful for the holy ones,
    Too great and awesome for all around Him.
O Lord of Hosts, who is like You?
    Mighty God, girded with faith.


One of the foundations of our faith is the belief that God does not have any body, shape or form. After the revelation at Sinai, God specifically warned us, "Consider this carefully: You saw no manner of form on the day that God spoke to you at Horeb (Sinai)" (Deuteronomy 4:15). 27

The fact that God has no body or form should be perfectly obvious. If God had any shape, it would provide us with a means of comparison. Since we have already determined that He cannot be compared to anything, it is clear that He has no body or form

This also follows from the fact that God is infinite. God cannot have a body, because anything with a body must be bounded and finite. The Prophet sums up this line of reasoning when he says, "All the nations are like nothing before Him. They are like zero and nothingness to Him. To whom then will you liken God? What likeness will you compare to Him?" (Isaiah 40:17, 18). 28

The very fact that there is nothing in our experience that compares to God makes it utterly impossible really to speak of Him. Our vocabulary, and indeed, our very thought processes, can only deal with things we know. Since God can in no way be compared to anything in our experience, we do not even have the vocabulary with which to speak about Him. 29

Our sages teach us that God borrows terms from His creatures to express His relationship with the world. 30 God can only speak to us in language that we understand. We therefore have a rule: "The Torah speaks in the language of man." 31

We normally address God as we would address another person. It is therefore natural for the Torah to do so. Thus, when the Torah describes God's action, it may speak of God's hand. When it says that He sees us, it may speak of His eye. In saying that we are lower than He, it may say that we are under His feet. 32   None of these expressions, however, is meant to imply that God has any body or form. They are merely spoken in allegory, relating to His power and action in the world. 33

Although these anthropomorphisms are spoken in allegory, they do have a precise meaning. They speak of the various qualities that God uses in running His universe, and as such, are the basic ingredients of His providence. We find a hint of their meaning in Elijah's introduction in the Tikuney Zohar, where he says: 34

Love is the right hand,
     Power is the left;
Glory is the body,
     Victory and Splendor are the two feet . . .
Wisdom is the brain,
     Understanding is the heart . . .
Majesty is the mouth . . .

All these spiritual qualities also exist in man. The Torah therefore says, "God created man in His image" (Genesis 1:27). We are not speaking of physical form, but of spiritual quality. As we mentioned earlier, God can to some extent be thought of as the soul of the world. As such, His spiritual qualities may parallel those of the human soul. In a spiritual sense, then, man is created in the "image of God." 35 Furthermore, since man's body parallels his soul, it too partakes of the divine. 36

Every time God uses an anthropomorphism to describe Himself, He does so to teach us a lesson. There is a Midrash that expresses this most lucidly: 37

When our fathers stood at Mount Sinai to receive the Torah, they did not see any form. They did not see the form of any man, any creature, or even of any soul that God created in His world. It is thus written, "Consider this carefully: You saw no manner of form on the day that God spoke to you at Horeb."

You want to argue that God is fire . . . You ask, is it not written, "God is a consuming fire" (Deuteronomy 4:24)?

Let me give you an example:

A king once had a family and servants who did not act correctly. He said to them, "I am a bear upon you! I am a lion upon you! I am the angel of death upon you! All because of your deeds!"

When the Torah says, "God is a consuming fire," we must interpret it the same way. . . . Thus, it is also written, "God will judge with fire . . . " (Isaiah 66:16).


When we say that God is pure and holy, we mean that He is totally separated from anything worldly. In general, the word "holy" means different, separated, special and set aside. 38 When we apply it to God, it means that He does not partake of any worldly quality. There is nothing in the world that can give us even the slightest clue of God's true essence. We find an allusion to this in the verse, " 'To whom will you liken Me that I be an equal?' says the Holy One" (Isaiah 40:25). In this verse we see that God is called the "Holy One" precisely because He cannot be likened to anything in His creation.

What do we mean when we say that God is totally divorced from all worldly things?

First of all, we mean that He is not physical in any sense, and therefore, not made of matter. This should be obvious, since God is the Creator of all matter. We mean that God has no body, shape or form, as we have already discussed. If we look into this a bit more deeply, however, we understand that as soon as we say that God has no body or form, we are also saying that it is utterly impossible to imagine Him. We have absolutely no way of picturing something without form, and therefore, have no way of imagining God. When we say that God does not partake of anything worldly, we are also saying that He is utterly beyond our imagination.

There are other worldly things that are even more basic than matter and form. There are things like space and time, which are the most elementary ingredients of the physical world. It is utterly impossible even to begin to imagine a world without space. It is like trying to look through the back of your head. And to imagine a universe without time is even more hopeless. We cannot even see two times at once. The absence of time is utterly beyond our ability to comprehend.

One of the ways in which God is holy is in the fact that He exists in a realm where neither space nor time exist. The Prophet says of God, "He dwells in eternity on high, His name is holy" (Isaiah 57:15). Eternity is where neither space nor time exist. God is in this unimaginable domain, and is therefore called "holy."

To try to speak or philosophize about the realm of God is utterly impossible. Our minds cannot even begin to operate in a realm where neither space or time exist. We do not have the vocabulary to express the elements of such a domain. This is but one reason why God is absolutely beyond our understanding. 39

All this is well expressed by an anecdote recorded in the Midrash: 40

A philosopher once asked Rabban Gamaliel, "Where is God?"

The Rabbi answered, "I do not know."

The philosopher retorted, "He is your praise and wisdom. You pray to Him every day. How can you say that you do not know where He is?"

Rabban Gamaliel looked at the philosopher and said, "You are asking me about something that is very far off, way beyond our world. I will ask you about something that is very close to you. Where is your soul?"

The philosopher was puzzled. He replied, "I really do not know."

Rabbi Gamaliel said, "Then your words are mere wind. You do not even know the place of something that is actually a part of you. How can you question me about something that is beyond understanding?"

What Rabban Gamaliel was telling the philosopher is that there are some things that the mind cannot even begin to grasp. To ask questions about these things is not wisdom, but foolishness. To ask where God is, is like asking where is thought or love or goodness. There are things outside the physical domain, and to apply physical terms to them is to lose sight of their true meaning.

The Midrash also tells us that even the highest angels cannot comprehend God's place. They therefore merely praise God by singing, "Blessed is God's glory from His place" (Ezekiel 3:12). 41 Even these celestial creatures, who themselves live in a realm beyond physical space, still cannot comprehend the domain of God. It is holy---utterly unique and different than anything in all creation.

When we say that God is the Creator of all things, we must say that He is the Creator of space and time as well. 42 Before He created the world, He created a realm of space and time in which to place it. 43 Thus, it is God Who defines space and time, and we cannot say that He is defined by them.

There is another Midrash that throws light on this most obscure subject. 44 The Midrash notes that in many places, God is called Makom, which literally means "place." The Midrash asks, "Why is God called 'Place'?" It answers, "Because He is the Place of the world. The world is not His place."

The Midrash is not merely telling us that God is bigger than the universe and therefore contains it inside of Himself. It is speaking in a much deeper sense. It is God Who defines the very concept of "place." He is Creator of space and time, and as such, is what makes them exist. As Creator of the concept of "place," God is the Place of all creation.

The Midrash finds an allusion to this in a verse in the Torah that literally reads, "Behold, 'place' is with Me" (Exodus 33:21). 45 "Place" is something that is with God, defined by Him. An even more remarkable allusion is found by the Midrash 46 in the Psalm (Psalms 90:1,2):

God, You have been our abode for all generations,
     Before the mountains were born,
     Before the world was formed,
From eternity to eternity, You are God.

What the Psalm is saying is that God Himself dwells in Eternity, and as such, is the "abode" of all creation. God is "from eternity to eternity," beyond the realm of space and time. It is therefore He who creates space and time as an "abode" for His creation.

According to many thinkers, space and time are properties of matter. 47 Therefore, when God created a universe of matter, He also created space and time.

Although the Bible does not discuss it in philosophical terms, there are numerous allusions to the fact that God is Creator and Master of time and space. Thus, for example, the Psalmist sings, "Yours is the day, Yours is also the night . . . You have set the borders of the world, You have made summer and winter" (Psalms 74:16,17). The Psalmist alludes again to the creation of space when he says to God, "You created north and south" (Ibid. 89:13). Direction is the most elementary ingredient of space, and here we see that it, too, is created by God. In utter nothingness there is neither space nor direction. The first act of creation is therefore the creation of space out of nothingness. Job alludes to this most remarkably when he says, "He stretches the north over nothingness" (Job 26:7). 48 Another allusion is found in God's word to His prophet, which states, "I am He, I am the first, I am also the last. My hand laid the foundation of the world, My right hand spread out the heavens. When I call to them, they stand together" (Isaiah 48:12).

Since God encompasses all space and time, we see Him as infinite in them. Just as God's kingdom extends to all worlds, so is it infinite in time. The Psalmist thus says, "Your kingdom is a kingdom spanning all eternities, and Your dominion is throughout every generations" (Psalms 145:13).

The concept of God's eternity is repeated over and over in the Bible. In the Song of the Red Sea, our fathers sang, "God shall be King forever and ever" (Exodus 15:18). The Psalmist echoes these words when he says, "God is King forever" (Psalms 9:8). 49  Even in our darkest hour, we did not forget this lesson, as we chant in our dirge, "You, O God, sit forever, Your throne endures from generation to generation" (Lamentations 5:19).

God exists outside of time, and therefore, we cannot apply any concepts involving time to Him. Thus, we cannot say that God has a beginning or end, or that the concept of age applies to Him in any way. In one place, the Talmud flatly asks, "How can we possibly say that God grows old?" 50

All change takes place in time. When something changes, it is in one state at one moment, and in another at the next. Since God exists outside of time, it is impossible for Him to change. God thus told His prophet, "I am God, I do not change" (Malachi 3:6). The Psalmist, also, sang, "You are the same, Your years never end" (Psalms 102:28).

God is therefore the unmoved Mover. He can bring about change in His world without changing Himself. He is the creator of time, and as such, can do whatever He desires with it. Thus, it is not incomprehensible that He can cause change without being changed Himself. 51

Even the creation of the universe did not change God in any way. He did not suddenly make up His mind to create a world. The plan of creation existed in timeless eternity, and was only brought into time when time itself was created. 52 God, however, remains exactly the same after as before creation. 53

This is expressed most clearly in our prayer Adon Olom:

Lord of the world, Who was King
     Before all forms were created;
When all things were made by His will,
     Only then was His name called King.

What this song is saying is that God was the same King before creation as He was after it. The only difference is that now He is called King. Before creation, there was nothing to call Him King.

These concepts are most difficult to understand. As we have repeated several times, it is actually impossible to imagine a realm where neither change nor time exist. We are glancing through a crack in the door, but the human mind can never really enter into it, at least not in this life.

In many places in the Torah, we find accounts of God expressing such emotions as joy or anger. At first glance, these may seem to imply changes in God's emotions. But further thought should remind us of our previous discussion of human terms when used in relationship to God. Here again, we are merely perceiving God's acts, and ascribing the same emotions to Him as we ourselves would feel if we were doing the same thing. Thus, for example, when God does something to punish, we say that He is angry. When He bountifully rewards, we say that He is happy. In all these cases, however, we are merely expressing how we would feel if we were doing these things. It is most important to realize that they do not imply any change in God Himself. 54

God literally never changes His mind, and therefore, His truth is absolute. A human being can say something in all sincerity one day, but feel quite differently the next. This is not true of God. He never changes; and that which is true in His realm today is also true tomorrow. God is therefore the only absolute truth.

The Prophet thus says, "The Lord, God, is Truth" (Jeremiah 10:10). The Midrash gives the following explanation: 55

What is God's seal? Our Rabbi said in the name of Rabbi Reuven, "God's seal is Truth." 56

Resh Lakish asked, "Why is Emeth the Hebrew word for truth?"

He replied, "Because it is spelled Aleph Mem Tav. Aleph is the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet, Mem is the middle letter, and Tav is the last letter of the alphabet. God thus says, 'I am first and I am last.' "

The Midrash is making precisely this point. In saying that God is Truth, we are also saying that He is eternal. Truth is something that is absolute and does not change. When we say that God is Truth, we are saying the He is outside the realm of change. 57

The final consequence of God's eternity is the fact that He knows the future. Since He is outside of time, future and past are exactly the same to Him, and His knowledge of the future is therefore exactly the same as His knowledge of the past. This will be discussed at length in the section on God's omniscience, but it also concerns our present discussion. God knows the future because He exists outside of time, as He Himself told His prophet, "I call the generations from the beginning, I, God, am First, and with the last, I am the same" (Isaiah 41:4). The prophet is alluding to the reason why God can know the future and "call the generations from the beginning." This is because He is outside of time, abiding in unchanging Eternity from the beginning to the end. 58

As Creator of both, God sees space and time alike. He can look at time just like we look at space. We are constantly moving through time, and can therefore only see the present. We are like a person driving down a road, who only sees a small part of the road at any given time. A person in an airplane, however, can see the entire road at once. In a similar way, God sees all time, from the beginning to the end, all at once. This is what the Talmud means when it says, "He sees it all with a single glance." 59


When our sages teach us that God does not eat or drink, they are telling us that He derives nothing at all from the world. God is the Creator and Giver, and there is no one who can give Him anything. God thus speaks through the Psalmist and says, "Even if I were hungry, I would not tell you, for the earth and everything in it are Mine" (Psalms 50:12). The Midrash tells us that God is saying, "Can you give oil to the olive or wine to the grape? If not, how can you give anything to Me?" 60

God is saying that the olive and the grape are the givers of oil and wine; therefore, one cannot give these products to them. Furthermore, even these are creations of God. God is the Giver of everything; and therefore, one certainly cannot give anything to Him.

There is a story in the Talmud (Chulin 61a) that illustrates this point quite clearly:

A king once said to Rabbi Joshua, "I would like to prepare a meal for your God."

Rabbi Joshua told the king that this could not be done, assuring him that God has no need for this, having many servants to provide for Him. When the king insisted, the Rabbi advised him to prepare a meal on a large open space on the bank of the Ravisa River. The king assembled a large army, and they worked all summer, gathering grain for this " meal." Before they were able to finish their preparation, however, a strong wind came and blew it all into the river. They worked again all that autumn, amassing a huge mountain of grain for the "meal." But again a torrential rain came, washing it all into the river.

The king asked Rabbi Joshua, "Who is taking away your God's meal?"

The Rabbi replied, "These are merely His janitors, who sweep and mop before Him."

The king then agreed that nothing could be given to God.

What this story is telling us is that God's power is infinite. Even if He had any needs, He could supply them Himself. However, no such needs exist in the first place.

God has absolutely no need for the world. We cannot even say that creation filled some inner need for God. 61 Creation was an act of pure love and altruism, with God gaining absolutely nothing from it at all. Nothing can change God, and even though He is the Creator of the world, He can exist exactly the same without it. 62 The Psalmist speaks of this when he sings (Psalms 102:26-28):

Long ago, You founded the earth,
     The heavens are the work of Your hands.
They will perish, but You will remain . . . .
     You are the same, Your years have no end.

One might be tempted to think that God may have created the world out of curiosity, to see how it would turn out. But even this is not true. We have already discussed how God knows the future exactly as He knows the past and present. He did not gain any new knowledge with the creation of the world or with anything else that happens in it. It is God who defines knowledge, and nothing can impart new knowledge to Him. This is what Job meant when he asked, "Can anyone grant God knowledge, when He judges even the highest?" (Job 21:22). The highest reaches of wisdom and knowledge are judged and defined by God. Who can add anything to His knowledge?

The Prophet echoes this question when he says (Isaiah 40:13-14):

Who can affect God's spirit?
     What counselor can instruct Him?
Whom has He consulted for understanding?
     Who taught Him the way of justice?
     Or gave Him lessons in wisdom?

Our good deeds do not affect God or benefit Him in any way. Our sins do not do anything to harm Him. All morality and good were created only for our own benefit. 63 Our sages thus taught us, "The commandments were only given to purify His creatures." 64 God Himself is not affected by any of them, as Elihu told Job (Job 35:6-8),

If you sin, how does it touch Him?
     If you do much evil, how can you harm Him?
If you do good, what do you give Him?
     What does he gain from your deeds?
Your evil is only against man,
     And your good is only for mortals.

Our sages teach us that all the good that man does only benefits the man who does it, even in religious acts directed toward God. 65 Although God wants our service, He in no way needs it.

God Himself sums this up in His theophany to Job when He says, "Who has given Me anything beforehand that I should repay him? Everything under heaven is Mine" (Job 41:3). God does not reward good because it benefits Him, but because it is good. No one can give God anything at all, even good deeds. Our sages comment on this passage and tell us that God is saying, "Who can hang a Mezuzah if I do not give him a house? Who can build a Succah if I do not give him place?" 66 We cannot do anything unless God gives us the means. Therefore, everything that we do is ultimately done with things that belong to God. Indeed, our very existence belongs to God. This being the case, what can we give Him? 67

God is the Giver of all things. As such, there is nothing that He can receive from His creation.

God - Part III

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    23 Thirteen Principles of Faith #2; Yad, Teshuvah 3:7.
    24 Yad, Avodath Kochavim 1; Daath Tevunah (Rabbi Moshe Chaim Luzzato, Tel Aviv, 5726) p. 13.
    25 Daath Tevunah loc. cit. See also Sifri HaAzinu #329. Cf. Berakhoth
     Berakhoth 33b.
    26 See Pardes Rimonim 2:7; Shefa Tal 1:3.
    27 Thirteen Principles of Faith #3; Yad, Teshuvah 3:6, Raavad ad l
    oc.; Iggereth Techiyath HaMethim p. 4; Ikkarim 1:2, 2:7; Pardes Rimonim Rimonim 1:9.
    28 See Chovoth HaLevavoth 1:10 (41b); Yad, Yesodey HaTorah 1:8, 1:11, from Chagigah 15a; Moreh Nevukhim 1:35, 2:1 end; Kuzari 5:18 #6.
    29 Chovoth HaLevavoth 39b; Moreh Nevukhim 1:58; Pardes Rimonim
     3:1, 4:8; Ikkarim 2:22. See also Zohar 2:42b; Nefesh HaChaim HaChaim 2:2.
    30 Mekhilta (65a), Rashi on Exodus 19:18; Tanchuma Yithro 13; Bereshith Rabbah 27:1; Koheleth Rabbah 2:24; Pesikta 4 (36b); Moreh Nevuchim 1:26, 1:47; Emunoth VeDeyoth 2:10; Chovoth HaLevavoth
     1:10; Kuzari 4:3 (18a). See also Ramban on
         Genesis 46:1; Tifereth Yisrael (Maharal) 33.
    31 Berakhoth 31b and parallels; Sifra on Leviticus 20:2; Yad, Yesodey Ha Torah 1:12; Chovoth HaLevavoth loc. cit.
    32 Cf. Exodus 24:10.
    33 Yad, loc. cit.
    34 Tikuney Zohar 17a.
    35 Nefesh HaChaim 1:1; Pardes Rimonim 31:8; Etz Chaim, Drush Egolim VaYashar

         Egolim VaYashar
    5; Shomer Emunim (HaKadmon) 1:25.
    36 Zohar 1:90b, 2:96b, 3:71b; Likutey Amarim (Tanya) 1: 4.
    37 Tana DeBei Eliahu Rabbah, end of #1.
    38 Kuzari 4:3, Tosafoth, Kiddushin 3b, s.v. "DeAsar." See also Leviticus 19:2, 21:8, Isaiah 6:3; VaYikra Rabbah 24:9.
    39 Emunoth VeDeyoth 1:4.
    40 Midrash Tehillim 103:5.
    41 Chagigah 13b.
    42 Emunoth VeDeyoth 2:11,12, Sh'vil Emunah ad loc. #10; Moreh Nevukhim
     2:13, 2:30; Ikkarim 2:18; Pardes Rimonim 3:1, 4:7; Torath HaOlah (Isserles) 3:59; Yaaroth Devash on Megillah 9a; Asarah Maamaros 1:16; Derech Mitzvothekha (Chabad) 57a. Also see Bereshith Rabbah 3:8.
    43 Pardes Rimonim 6:3.
    44 Bereshith Rabbah 68:10; Sh'moth Rabbah 45:6; Midrash
    Tehillim 50; Pesikta Rabathai 21 (104b); Yalkut 2:841; Radak on Psalm 90:1; Nefesh HaChaim 3:1-3.
    45 Cf. Rashi, Baaley Tosafoth ad loc.
    46 Ibid. Cf. Radak ad loc.
    47 See note 42. Also see Albert Einstein, Relativity, the Special and

         General Theory
    (Crown, New York, 1961), Appendix 5.
    48 Sanhedrin 38a; Yerushalmi Sanhedrin 4:9 (23b); Bereshith Rabbah
    49 See also Psalm 22:10, 102:13.
    50 Yebamoth l6b. See also Yad, Yesodey HaTorah 1:10; Emunoth VeDeyoth

    2:10; Kuzari 5:18 #5; Ikkarim 2:19. Cf. Bereshith Rabbah 81:2; Mekhilta on Exodus 22:3 (67b); VaYikra Rabbah 19:2 end; Ibn Ezra on Ecclesiastes 3:15.
    51 Cheredim #5 (Jerusalem, 5718) p. 42; Elemah Rabathai 1:1:15.
    52 Emunoth VeDeyoth, end of #1; Shomer Emunim (HaKadmon) 2:17. Cf. Etz Chaim, Drush Egolim VeYashar #1.
    53 Shnei Luchoth HaB'rith, Beth HaShem 1:6a, note; Cheredim #5 (p. 40).
    54 Yad, Yesodey HaTorah 1:11; Moreh Nevuchim 1:54; Emunoth VeDeyoth
    2:11; Ikkarim 2:14.
    55 Bereshith Rabbah 81:2.
    56 See above, note 18.
    57 Ikkarim 2:27.
    58 See Rabbi Moshe Almosnino, Pirkey Moshe, quoted in Midrash Shmuel
    and Tosafoth Yom Tov on Avoth 3:15; Yesod Emunah (Rabbi Baruch Kasover) 2; Sh'vil Emunah (on Emunoth VeDevoth) 4:4:11. Also see Kol Yehudah (on Kuzari) 5:20 (47b); Otzar Nechemad (on Kuzari) 1:1 (1lb), s.v. "Kol."
    59 Rosh HaShanah 18a. See Rambam, Tosafoth Yom Tov Ibid. 1:2.
    60 Pesikta 6 (57b).
    61 Yad, Yesodey HaTorah 2:3; Moreh Nevuchim 3:13; Emunoth 
    VeDeyoth 1:4, Sh'vil Emunah ad loc. 1:4:9; Reshith Chachmah 1:1 (8d).
    62 See VaYikra Rabbah 4:8; Midrash Sh'muel 5.
    63 See Ramban on Deuteronomy 22:6; Sefer HaChinukh 545; Nefesh HaChaim 2:4. Cf. Radak on Psalm 16:2.
    64 Bereshith Rabbah 44:1; Va Yikra Rabbah 13:3; Tanchuma
     Shemini 8; Midrash Tehillim 18:25; Yalkut 2:121; Moreh Nevuchim 3:26; Avodath HaKodesh 2:3; Shnei Luchoth HaBrith, Shaar HaGadol (1:48b); Tifereth Yisrael (Maharal) 7.
    Yerushalmi Nedarim 9:1 (29a).
    66 VaYikra Rabbah 27:2; BaMidbar Rabbah 14:2; Tanchuma 
    Kedoshim 16.
    67 See Zohar 2:274a.